Table of Contents

Definition of Narrative Therapy

Narrative therapy is a therapeutic approach that focuses on the stories people tell about their lives and how these stories shape their identity, beliefs, and behaviors. It is based on the idea that individuals construct their realities through the stories they create and share with others. Narrative therapy seeks to help individuals reframe and reconstruct these narratives in a way that empowers them to overcome challenges and create positive change.

Narrative therapy is especially effective for individuals experiencing issues related to identity, self-esteem, trauma, and relationship conflicts. It provides a way for people to challenge and reshape their life stories, allowing them to take a more active role in defining their identities and aspirations.

Narrative Therapy

Explanation of Narrative Therapy

Narrative therapy is a therapeutic approach that places a strong emphasis on the stories and narratives that individuals construct about their lives, experiences, and identities. This approach is grounded in the idea that people make sense of their lives and experiences by creating and sharing these narratives. Narrative therapists work with individuals to help them understand and potentially change the stories they tell about themselves, their problems, and their relationships.

Here’s an explanation of narrative therapy:


Narrative therapy views life as a series of stories. These stories are not just descriptions of events; they shape our perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors. People often have a dominant narrative, which may be problematic, that affects how they view themselves and their circumstances.


A key concept in narrative therapy is “externalization.” It involves separating the problem from the person. Instead of thinking of themselves as the problem, individuals are encouraged to view their challenges or issues as external entities. This shift allows people to explore the problem in a less self-blaming and more objective way.


Narrative therapy helps individuals deconstruct or “unpack” their dominant narratives. This means examining the stories they have constructed about their lives, including how they perceive themselves, their relationships, and their difficulties. By deconstructing these narratives, people can identify the influences and assumptions that have shaped their beliefs.


Once the problematic narratives have been identified, individuals work with the therapist to re-author their stories. This process involves creating alternative and more empowering narratives that align with their preferred identities and values. People actively participate in changing their stories to construct a more positive and hopeful self-narrative.


Conversations: Narrative therapy often involves therapeutic conversations between the client and the therapist, as well as conversations with family members or support networks. These conversations provide a space for individuals to explore their experiences, share their stories, and collaborate in creating new, more constructive narratives.

Cultural and Social Context:

Narrative therapy recognizes that personal narratives are influenced by broader social and cultural contexts. Therapists consider the impact of societal narratives on individual stories and explore how cultural norms and values shape a person’s sense of identity and self-worth.

Narrative therapy is particularly effective for individuals dealing with issues related to identity, self-esteem, trauma, and relationship conflicts. By working to re-author their narratives, clients can gain a more empowering perspective, discover their strengths, and create a sense of agency and control in their lives. This approach is often used in individual and family therapy and is known for its collaborative and respectful nature.

History of Narrative Therapy

Narrative therapy is a relatively modern approach to psychotherapy, developed in the 1980s and 1990s. It was primarily developed by two prominent therapists, Michael White and David Epston, both from Australia and New Zealand. The history of narrative therapy can be outlined as follows:

Emergence in the 1980s:

The origins of narrative therapy can be traced to the work of Michael White, who began to develop the approach in the 1980s. He was influenced by various therapeutic models, including postmodern philosophy, social constructionism, and the works of Michel Foucault and Michel de Certeau. These influences led White to question traditional psychotherapeutic approaches and focus on the role of language and narrative in shaping individuals’ lives and experiences.

Collaboration with David Epston:

Michael White’s early work in narrative therapy laid the foundation for its development. In the late 1980s, he began collaborating with David Epston, a family therapist from New Zealand. Together, they further refined the narrative therapy approach. Their partnership contributed to the establishment and popularization of narrative therapy as a distinct and influential therapeutic model.

Key Concepts and Techniques:

White and Epston introduced key concepts and techniques in narrative therapy, such as externalization, deconstruction of dominant narratives, and re-authoring personal stories. These concepts aimed to help clients view their problems as separate from themselves, explore the influence of cultural and societal narratives, and create alternative, more empowering narratives.

Publication of Foundational Texts:

White and Epston’s work was published in various foundational texts, such as “Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends” (1990) and “Narrative Therapy: The Social Construction of Preferred Realities” (1990). These books outlined the principles and techniques of narrative therapy and helped spread its ideas internationally.

Global Influence:

Narrative therapy gained recognition and acceptance within the therapeutic community and began to influence other therapeutic approaches, including family therapy and counseling. It was also applied to a wide range of issues, such as trauma, grief, addiction, and relationship conflicts.

Training and Workshops:

The founders and subsequent practitioners of narrative therapy conducted training sessions and workshops to educate therapists and counselors in the approach. This contributed to its global dissemination and adoption.

Ongoing Development and Adaptations:

Over the years, narrative therapy has continued to evolve, with various practitioners making adaptations and developments to the model. It is an adaptable approach, which allows for flexibility in its application to diverse therapeutic contexts and client populations.

Today, narrative therapy is practiced by therapists and counselors around the world and has become a well-established and respected therapeutic approach. Its emphasis on the power of language, personal narratives, and the deconstruction and reconstruction of stories has had a significant impact on the field of psychotherapy.

Types of Narrative Therapy

Narrative therapy, as a therapeutic approach, does not have distinct “types” in the same way that some other therapies do. Instead, it is a flexible and adaptable approach that can be applied to a wide range of issues and contexts. However, there are variations and specializations within narrative therapy, often developed by different therapists or influenced by specific areas of application. Here are a few variations or types of narrative therapy:

Narrative Family Therapy:

This approach applies narrative therapy principles to family systems. It focuses on the stories and narratives within the family, aiming to reframe problematic family dynamics and relationships. The therapist collaboratively explores and re-author family stories to foster healthier interactions.

Narrative Group Therapy:

Narrative therapy can be used in group settings, where individuals with similar issues or concerns come together. This approach emphasizes the power of group narratives and encourages individuals to share their stories, re-author their experiences, and provide mutual support.

Narrative Therapy for Trauma:

Some practitioners specialize in using narrative therapy for individuals who have experienced trauma. This approach focuses on helping trauma survivors make sense of their experiences and create narratives that promote resilience and healing.

Narrative Therapy for Grief and Loss:

Narrative therapy is often applied to help individuals process and navigate the complex emotions of grief and loss. It assists individuals in creating narratives that honor and remember loved ones or lost aspects of themselves.

Narrative Therapy for Identity and Self-Esteem:

This variation of narrative therapy concentrates on issues related to identity, self-esteem, and self-concept. It helps individuals reframe self-narratives to build a more positive self-identity and enhance self-esteem.

Narrative Therapy in Schools and Education:

Narrative therapy is used in educational settings to support students in navigating challenges, developing a sense of self, and improving their relationships and academic performance.

Narrative Therapy in Community and Social Work:

Narrative therapy principles can be applied in community settings and social work to help individuals and communities address broader social and systemic issues. This includes using collective narratives to promote social change.

Cross-Cultural Narrative Therapy:

Some practitioners focus on adapting narrative therapy to be culturally sensitive and relevant to individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. This approach emphasizes understanding and respecting the cultural context of personal narratives.

It’s important to note that these variations are not separate “types” in the traditional sense but rather applications or specializations within the broader framework of narrative therapy. Narrative therapy is highly adaptable and can be tailored to address a wide array of individual, family, and community concerns. Therapists may choose to integrate elements from different variations to best meet the unique needs of their clients.

Techniques of Narrative Therapy

Narrative therapy employs a variety of techniques and interventions to help individuals deconstruct and re-author the stories they tell about their lives. These techniques aim to empower clients to change their narratives and create more positive and empowering personal stories. Here are some key techniques used in narrative therapy:


Externalization involves separating the problem from the person. Clients are encouraged to view their challenges or issues as external entities rather than part of their identity. This shift allows clients to explore the problem with a sense of objectivity.

Deconstruction of Dominant Narratives:

Therapists help clients identify and deconstruct the dominant or problematic narratives that influence their self-perception and behaviors. This involves examining how certain stories have shaped their beliefs and self-concept.


Re-authoring focuses on rewriting and reconstructing narratives. Clients actively participate in creating new, alternative stories that align with their preferred identities, values, and aspirations. This process allows individuals to take control of the narrative and reshape their sense of self.

Definitional Ceremony:

This technique involves a ceremonial process in which clients share their newly authored narratives with a witness or community. It is a symbolic act that marks the transition from old, problematic stories to new, more empowering ones.

Outsider Witnesses:

In this technique, individuals share their stories with external witnesses, often friends, family members, or community members. The witnesses provide supportive and empathetic feedback, which can help clients gain different perspectives on their narratives.

Re-membering Conversations:

Re-membering conversations focus on recalling and celebrating forgotten or neglected aspects of one’s life stories. This technique helps clients rediscover strengths, resources, and forgotten positive experiences.

Unique Outcomes:

Narrative therapists explore times when individuals have acted in ways that are inconsistent with their dominant problem-saturated narratives. These unique outcomes reveal exceptions to the problem and highlight the potential for change.

Questioning and Reflection:

Therapists use reflective and open-ended questions to encourage clients to examine their experiences and narratives more deeply. Questions may help clients challenge and reframe their stories.

Letter Writing:

Clients may be encouraged to write letters to themselves or others as a way of expressing their thoughts, feelings, and new narratives. This can be a therapeutic tool for self-expression and reflection.

Documentation and Journaling:

Clients may be asked to keep journals or document their experiences and reflections. Journaling can help individuals track their narrative changes and monitor their progress.

Mapping and Timeline Exercises:

Therapists may use mapping and timeline exercises to help clients visually represent their life stories, including key events and turning points. This can provide a clear picture of how narratives have evolved over time.


Re-storying involves the collaborative process of co-creating new narratives with the therapist. Together, the client and therapist work to shape a more positive and empowering story.

These techniques are designed to assist clients in exploring their personal narratives, challenging problem-saturated stories, and creating alternative, more constructive stories that align with their values and aspirations. Narrative therapy is highly collaborative and respects the client’s expertise in their own life, emphasizing the power of language and narrative in shaping identity and experience.

Utilizations of Narrative Therapy

Narrative therapy is a versatile therapeutic approach that can be applied in various settings and for a wide range of issues. Its adaptability and focus on the power of storytelling make it a valuable tool in the following areas:

Individual Therapy:

Narrative therapy can be used to help individuals address a wide range of personal issues, such as anxiety, depression, self-esteem, identity exploration, and life transitions. It empowers clients to re-author their personal narratives and gain a new perspective on their experiences.

Family Therapy:

Narrative therapy is often applied to family systems. It can help families explore and reframe problematic family dynamics, improve communication, and address conflicts. This approach encourages family members to collaboratively create new, more empowering family narratives.

Couples Therapy:

In couples therapy, narrative therapy can assist partners in re-examining and re-authoring their shared narratives. This can help improve communication, resolve conflicts, and strengthen the bond between partners.

Grief and Loss Counseling:

Narrative therapy is valuable for individuals coping with grief and loss. It provides a space for clients to construct narratives that honor and remember loved ones and help them make sense of their experiences.

Trauma Recovery:

Narrative therapy can be used to help trauma survivors make sense of their traumatic experiences. Clients are supported in re-authoring their traumatic narratives in ways that promote resilience and healing.

Identity Exploration:

Narrative therapy is effective for individuals seeking to explore and understand their identities, including issues related to gender, sexuality, culture, and self-concept. It allows individuals to create more authentic and empowering self-narratives.

Child and Adolescent Therapy:

Narrative therapy techniques can be adapted for working with children and adolescents. It helps young clients explore their stories, express their feelings, and address various developmental challenges.

Community Development:

In community settings, narrative therapy is utilized to enhance community relationships, address community conflicts, and promote social change. It encourages community members to work together to identify and implement solutions to shared challenges.

Substance Abuse and Addiction Recovery:

Narrative therapy can be applied to support individuals in recovery from addiction. It helps client’s re-author their narratives, address underlying issues, and develop a new life story that does not revolve around substance abuse.

Schools and Education:

Narrative therapy is used in educational settings to support students in navigating academic and social challenges. It helps students develop a sense of self and improve their relationships within the school environment.

Career Counseling:

Narrative therapy can assist individuals in exploring their career narratives, identifying strengths and aspirations, and addressing career-related challenges. It can be valuable for career exploration and transitions.

Social and Cultural Context:

Narrative therapy is sensitive to cultural and social contexts. It can be adapted to address the specific narratives and experiences of individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Elderly Care:

Narrative therapy can help elderly individuals reflect on their life stories, memories, and transitions in later life. It can provide a sense of meaning and closure to their narratives.

Narrative therapy’s adaptability and emphasis on storytelling and narrative reconstruction make it applicable in various therapeutic contexts, and it empowers clients to create more positive and constructive life stories.

Advantages of Narrative Therapy

Narrative therapy offers several advantages that make it a valuable approach in the field of psychotherapy and counseling. Some of the key advantages of narrative therapy include:


Narrative therapy empowers individuals to take an active role in shaping and re-authoring their own life stories. It encourages clients to become the authors of their narratives, helping them regain a sense of control over their lives.

Respect for Client’s Expertise:

Narrative therapy respects the client’s expertise in their own life. Therapists acknowledge that clients are the best experts on their experiences and understandings. This approach values and amplifies the client’s voice.

Collaborative and Non-Directive:

Narrative therapy is collaborative in nature. It does not impose solutions or diagnoses on clients. Instead, therapists work alongside clients to explore, challenge, and reframe their narratives.


Narrative therapy focuses on identifying and highlighting the client’s strengths, skills, and resources. This strengths-based perspective builds on the individual’s existing abilities and supports their potential for positive change.

Culturally Sensitive:

Narrative therapy recognizes the influence of culture on personal narratives and is adaptable to be culturally sensitive. It respects the client’s cultural context and beliefs.

Externalization of Problems:

The approach encourages clients to externalize their problems by viewing them as separate from themselves. This shift reduces self-blame and allows individuals to work on the issue with a sense of objectivity.

Applicability to Various Issues:

Narrative therapy is versatile and can be applied to a wide range of issues, including but not limited to anxiety, depression, trauma, grief, addiction, identity exploration, relationship conflicts, and more.

Resilience and Post-Traumatic Growth:

Narrative therapy is known for fostering resilience and promoting post-traumatic growth. It helps individuals reconstruct narratives that emphasize resilience, hope, and recovery after traumatic experiences.

Client-Centered Approach:

Narrative therapy is fundamentally client-centered. It is the client who defines their preferred identity and values, and the therapist supports the client’s journey in achieving these goals.

Reduction of Stigmatization:

The approach is non-pathologizing and non-blaming, which can reduce stigma associated with mental health issues. It helps individuals see their struggles as normal reactions to life experiences.


Narrative therapy encourages individuals to focus on creating solutions and new narratives that align with their preferred future. This forward-oriented perspective can be motivating and inspiring.

Personal Growth and Change:

The focus on re-authoring personal narratives often leads to personal growth, self-discovery, and positive change. Clients develop new stories that are congruent with their values and aspirations.

Suitable for All Ages:

Narrative therapy can be adapted for individuals of all ages, from children to the elderly. It is relevant in various contexts, including family, couples, and individual therapy.

Cross-Cultural Applicability:

Narrative therapy principles can be adapted to address the unique narratives and experiences of individuals from different cultural backgrounds and languages.

Post-Therapy Maintenance:

Clients can continue to apply the skills and insights gained from narrative therapy to maintain and build upon their improvements after therapy has concluded.

The advantages of narrative therapy make it a widely used and effective approach in the field of counseling and psychotherapy, offering clients the opportunity to reframe their stories, find their strengths, and create more positive and empowering narratives for their lives.

Effectiveness of Narrative Therapy

Narrative therapy has been found to be effective for a wide range of psychological and emotional issues, making it a valuable approach in the field of psychotherapy. The effectiveness of narrative therapy is supported by both research studies and clinical reports. Here are some key points regarding its effectiveness:

Positive Outcomes:

Narrative therapy often leads to positive therapeutic outcomes, including improved emotional well-being, increased self-esteem, and enhanced self-concept. Clients typically report feeling more empowered and in control of their lives.

Personal Growth:

Clients who engage in narrative therapy often experience personal growth and increased self-awareness. They develop a better understanding of their values, aspirations, and strengths.

Reduction in Symptom Severity:

Narrative therapy has been shown to significantly reduce the severity of various psychological and emotional problems, including depression, anxiety, trauma, and relationship conflicts.

Resilience and Post-Traumatic Growth:

Narrative therapy is known for its ability to foster resilience and promote post-traumatic growth. Clients are encouraged to re-author their narratives in ways that emphasize resilience and hope after difficult life experiences.

Improved Relationships:

Narrative therapy can lead to improved relationships, especially in the context of family and couples therapy. It helps individuals and families reframe narratives, communicate more effectively, and resolve conflicts.


Clients often report feeling more empowered and in control of their lives after engaging in narrative therapy. This is due to the emphasis on clients being the authors of their own narratives.

Cultural Sensitivity:

Narrative therapy is adaptable to different cultural contexts, making it suitable for diverse client populations. Therapists can respect and incorporate the client’s cultural beliefs into the therapeutic process.

Client Satisfaction:

Clients frequently express high levels of satisfaction with narrative therapy. Its collaborative, non-pathologizing, and non-blaming approach often leads to a strong therapeutic alliance.


Narrative therapy is versatile and can be applied to various issues and contexts, making it a valuable approach in individual therapy, family therapy, couples therapy, and more.

Long-Term Benefits:

The insights and skills gained from narrative therapy can continue to benefit clients long after therapy has ended. Clients often use the principles they’ve learned to maintain and build upon their improvements.

Cross-Cultural Applicability:

Narrative therapy principles can be adapted to address the unique narratives and experiences of individuals from different cultural backgrounds, which enhances its applicability.

While narrative therapy is recognized for its effectiveness, it’s essential to note that therapy outcomes can vary depending on the individual, the nature of the issue, the client’s motivation, and the skill of the therapist. As with any therapeutic approach, the effectiveness of narrative therapy may depend on the specific needs and circumstances of the client. However, its emphasis on personal narratives, empowerment, and collaboration makes it a valuable and widely used therapeutic approach.

Considerations of Narrative Therapy

When considering narrative therapy, there are several important factors and considerations to keep in mind, both for therapists and clients:


Narrative therapy is highly collaborative. It relies on a strong therapeutic alliance, where the client and therapist work together to explore and re-author personal narratives. Clients should be willing to actively participate in the process and engage in open and honest conversations with their therapist.

Non-Pathologizing Approach:

Narrative therapy is non-pathologizing, which means it does not focus on diagnosing or labeling clients with mental health disorders. Instead, it looks at the narratives people construct and how these narratives shape their experiences. Clients should be open to discussing their issues without the fear of being labeled or pathologized.

Respect for Cultural Context:

Narrative therapy values cultural sensitivity. Clients should feel comfortable discussing their cultural background, beliefs, and values. Therapists should be respectful and adaptable to the client’s cultural context, as this can influence personal narratives.


Narrative therapy is adaptable and can be applied to a wide range of issues and contexts. Clients and therapists should be open to exploring how narrative therapy principles can be tailored to address the specific needs and goals of the client.

Narrative Exploration:

Clients should be prepared to explore their personal narratives, including those that may be challenging or painful. This process may involve discussing past experiences, traumas, and emotional issues.

Goal Setting:

Clients should actively participate in setting clear, specific, and measurable goals for therapy. These goals serve as a foundation for the therapeutic process and guide the re-authoring of narratives.

Externalization of Problems:

Narrative therapy often involves externalizing problems, viewing them as separate from the individual. Clients should be open to this concept and willing to explore how problems have influenced their lives.

Reflection and Re-authoring:

Clients should be willing to reflect on their life stories, challenge problematic narratives, and actively participate in the re-authoring process. This may involve creating new, more empowering narratives.

Time-Limited Approach:

Narrative therapy is often a brief therapy model, with a focus on goal attainment in a limited number of sessions. Clients should understand and be prepared for the time-limited nature of the approach.

Personal Growth and Change:

Narrative therapy often leads to personal growth and change. Clients should be open to personal insights and be willing to implement changes in their lives as they re-author their narratives.

Follow-Up and Maintenance:

After therapy concludes, clients may need to apply the insights and skills gained from narrative therapy to maintain and build upon their improvements. Clients should be prepared for this post-therapy process.

Feedback and Communication:

Open and honest communication is crucial in narrative therapy. Clients should feel comfortable providing feedback about the therapy process, and therapists should check in regularly to gauge client satisfaction and progress.

Therapist Competence:

It’s important to work with a therapist who is trained and experienced in narrative therapy. The therapist’s competence is essential for effectively applying the approach and adapting it to the client’s needs.

By considering these factors, both clients and therapists can make the most of narrative therapy and work together to explore and reshape personal narratives in a way that is empowering, positive, and aligned with the client’s preferred future.

Process of Narrative Therapy

The process of narrative therapy involves a series of collaborative steps that clients and therapists take together to explore, challenge, and re-author the client’s personal narratives. Here is an overview of the typical process of narrative therapy:

Engagement and Building Rapport:

The therapy process begins with the therapist establishing a strong therapeutic alliance, creating a safe and non-judgmental space for the client. Building rapport is essential for a successful therapeutic relationship.

Storytelling and Narrative Exploration:

Clients are encouraged to share their stories and narratives, describing their experiences, problems, and concerns. The therapist actively listens, paying close attention to the language and metaphors used by the client.

Externalization of Problems:

The therapist introduces the concept of externalization, helping clients view their problems as separate from themselves. Clients are encouraged to personify or name their issues, which can reduce self-blame and create emotional distance.

Deconstruction of Dominant Narratives:

Clients and therapists work together to examine and deconstruct the dominant or problematic narratives that have influenced the client’s self-concept and experiences. This process involves critical questioning and identifying the influence of these narratives.

Re-authoring Personal Narratives:

The heart of narrative therapy involves re-authoring personal narratives. Clients actively participate in creating new, more empowering narratives that align with their values, strengths, and preferred future. This may involve exploring alternative stories that challenge problem-saturated narratives.

Definitional Ceremonies and Outsider Witnesses:

Some narrative therapy sessions include definitional ceremonies, where clients share their new narratives with a witness or community. This symbolic act marks the transition from old narratives to new ones. In some cases, outsider witnesses, such as friends or family members, provide feedback and alternative perspectives on the client’s narratives.

Reflection and Implementation:

Clients are encouraged to reflect on the insights and changes resulting from the therapy process. They explore how their re-authored narratives can be implemented in their daily lives to achieve their goals.

Monitoring and Follow-Up:

The progress made in narrative therapy is often monitored, and clients are encouraged to discuss the ongoing implementation of their new narratives in follow-up sessions. Therapists may check in to see how the client is maintaining and building upon their improvements.

Maintenance and Self-Reliance:

After therapy concludes, clients are expected to maintain and continue re-authoring their narratives on their own. Narrative therapy often empowers clients to take control of their own stories and create their preferred futures.

Termination and Closure:

Narrative therapy concludes when the client and therapist agree that the client has achieved their goals or has made sufficient progress. The therapy process is brought to a close with a sense of closure and accomplishment.

Throughout the process of narrative therapy, the therapist takes on a role of active listening, reflective questioning, and co-creation of new narratives. The approach is collaborative, respectful, and focused on the client’s expertise in their own life. The ultimate goal is to help clients reshape their narratives in a way that aligns with their preferred identities and values, leading to positive change and personal growth.

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