Table of Contents

Definition of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder (DPDR) is a dissociative disorder characterized by persistent and distressing feelings of detachment, unreality, or disconnection from oneself (depersonalization) or the surrounding environment (derealization). Individuals experiencing depersonalization may feel as though they are observing themselves from outside their bodies, feeling disconnected from their thoughts, emotions, sensations, or actions. Derealization involves a sense of detachment from the external world, where the surroundings may appear distorted, dreamlike, or unreal.

Symptoms can vary in intensity and may be triggered by stress, trauma, anxiety, substance abuse, or other factors. Some individuals might experience DPDR infrequently and mildly, while others may have chronic and severe episodes that significantly impact their daily functioning, leading to distress or impairment in work, relationships, or social activities.

It’s essential for individuals experiencing persistent symptoms of depersonalization or derealization to seek professional help. Treatment may involve therapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or mindfulness-based approaches) and sometimes medication to alleviate symptoms and improve coping strategies.


History of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

The understanding and recognition of depersonalization/derealization experiences date back centuries, but the formal conceptualization and identification of Depersonalization Disorder (DPD) or Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder (DPDR) as a distinct psychological condition have evolved over time.

  • Depersonalization experiences, characterized by feelings of detachment from oneself, were described as far back as the late 19th century by notable psychologists such as Pierre Janet and Sigmund Freud. However, it wasn’t until the mid-20th century that these experiences were recognized as a distinct disorder.
  • In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), which serves as a classification system for mental health conditions, depersonalization was initially included under the umbrella of anxiety disorders. It was listed as a symptom rather than a standalone disorder.
  • Over time, as research advanced and understanding grew, depersonalization and its related experience, derealization (feeling detached from the external world), were increasingly recognized as significant and often co-occurring phenomena. In the DSM-III (published in 1980), Depersonalization Disorder was formally introduced as a separate diagnostic category.
  • The DSM-5, the latest edition as of my last update in January 2022, identifies Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder as a dissociative disorder characterized by persistent and distressing experiences of depersonalization, derealization, or both.
  • Research into the neurobiological, psychological, and environmental factors contributing to DPDR has also expanded. Trauma, stress, anxiety, and sometimes substance use have been identified as potential triggers or exacerbating factors for this disorder.
  • Treatment approaches have evolved as well, with psychotherapeutic methods like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based techniques, and pharmacological interventions being explored to help manage symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals affected by DPDR.

The history of DPDR reflects a growing understanding of dissociative experiences as a significant mental health concern, leading to improved recognition, diagnosis, and treatment strategies over time.

DSM-5 Criteria of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder (DPDR) is categorized as a dissociative disorder. To receive a diagnosis of DPDR, an individual must meet specific criteria outlined in the DSM-5. Here are the criteria for Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder:

Criterion A: The presence of persistent or recurrent experiences of depersonalization (feeling detached from oneself) and/or derealization (feeling detached from the external world).

Criterion B: During these experiences, reality testing remains intact. That is, despite feeling detached, the individual understands that these experiences of depersonalization or derealization are not indicative of a psychotic disorder (e.g., they are not hallucinations or delusions).

Criterion C: These experiences cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Criterion D: The experiences of depersonalization or derealization are not better explained by another mental disorder, substance use, medication effects, or other medical conditions.

To meet the diagnosis of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder, an individual must experience persistent or recurrent episodes of depersonalization and/or derealization that cause distress or impairment. These experiences must not be better explained by other mental health conditions or medical factors.

It’s crucial to note that experiencing occasional moments of depersonalization or derealization does not necessarily qualify as Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. The diagnosis requires persistent or recurrent episodes that significantly impact an individual’s daily life and functioning. A proper assessment and diagnosis by a qualified mental health professional are essential for accurate identification and appropriate treatment of DPDR.

Etiology of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

The precise etiology of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder (DPDR) isn’t fully understood, as it can be influenced by various factors. Several theories and research findings suggest a multifaceted interplay of biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors contributing to the development and persistence of DPDR:

Psychological and Emotional Factors:

Trauma, particularly in early childhood, has been linked to the development of dissociative symptoms such as depersonalization and derealization. High-stress situations, anxiety, and emotional distress can trigger or exacerbate DPDR symptoms. Some individuals may use dissociation as a coping mechanism to deal with overwhelming emotions or traumatic experiences.

Neurobiological Factors:

There’s ongoing research into the neurobiological underpinnings of DPDR. Alterations in certain brain regions involved in emotional regulation, self-awareness, and perception (such as the prefrontal cortex and limbic system) have been suggested as potential contributors to the experience of depersonalization and derealization.

Psychiatric and Personality Factors:

DPDR often co-occurs with other psychiatric conditions like anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and personality disorders. Individuals with a history of these conditions might be more susceptible to developing DPDR.

Cognitive and Behavioral Factors:

Maladaptive thought patterns, such as excessive self-focus or rumination, might contribute to the maintenance of depersonalization experiences. Some cognitive and behavioral processes may perpetuate or exacerbate the sense of detachment from oneself or the environment.

Environmental and Sociocultural Factors:

Cultural influences, social environments, and experiences within one’s social context can impact the development or exacerbation of DPDR symptoms. Societal stressors or expectations might also play a role in triggering dissociative experiences.

Genetic and Familial Factors:

While no specific genes have been identified as causing DPDR, there might be a genetic predisposition or familial patterns in certain cases, suggesting a potential genetic vulnerability to dissociative experiences.

It’s important to understand that the onset and persistence of DPDR can vary widely among individuals. Often, it’s a combination of several factors rather than a single cause that contributes to the development and maintenance of the disorder. Additionally, not everyone experiencing depersonalization or derealization will develop DPDR. Seeking professional help from mental health experts is crucial to properly assess and address the individual factors contributing to a person’s DPDR symptoms. Treatment approaches may involve therapy, medication, and coping strategies tailored to the individual’s needs.

Theories related to Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

Several theories attempt to explain the occurrence and mechanisms behind Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder (DPDR). These theories encompass neurobiological, psychological, and cognitive perspectives to understand the complex nature of these dissociative experiences:

Dysregulation in Emotion Processing:

One theory suggests that individuals with DPDR might have difficulties processing emotions effectively, leading to a disconnection between emotional experiences and conscious awareness. Emotional dysregulation could contribute to the detachment from oneself (depersonalization) and the external world (derealization).

Alterations in Self-Awareness and Body Perception:

DPDR might involve disruptions in the perception of oneself and the body. Some theories propose that abnormalities in self-awareness, body representation, or integration of sensory information could underlie the feelings of detachment or disconnection from one’s own body and identity.

Disturbances in Cognitive Processing:

Cognitive theories suggest that alterations in attention, perception, memory, and sense of agency may contribute to DPDR. For instance, heightened self-focused attention or alterations in perception of time might influence the experience of depersonalization or derealization.

Biological and Neurobiological Factors:

There’s ongoing research exploring the neurobiological underpinnings of DPDR. Some theories suggest abnormalities or dysregulation in brain regions associated with self-awareness, emotional processing, and reality monitoring, such as the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes, and limbic system.

Psychological Defense Mechanisms:

Dissociation, including depersonalization and derealization, might serve as defense mechanisms against overwhelming stress, trauma, or distressing emotions. The experiences of detachment could be a way for individuals to cope with situations perceived as threatening or intolerable.

Trauma and Conditioning:

Trauma-related theories propose that DPDR might result from early-life or cumulative traumatic experiences. Dissociation, including depersonalization and derealization, could be adaptive responses to trauma, aimed at protecting the individual from overwhelming experiences.

Cognitive-Behavioral Explanations:

Cognitive-behavioral theories suggest that maladaptive thinking patterns, such as hypervigilance towards bodily sensations or excessive self-focused attention, may contribute to the maintenance of DPDR symptoms.

These theories are not mutually exclusive and often overlap, highlighting the complex interplay of biological, psychological, and environmental factors in the development and persistence of DPDR. Understanding these theories can guide research efforts and therapeutic interventions aimed at addressing the multifaceted nature of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Treatment approaches often involve a combination of psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and, in some cases, pharmacological interventions tailored to individual needs and circumstances.

Risk factors of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder (DPDR) can manifest due to various factors. While the precise causes remain unclear, certain risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing DPDR:

Trauma or Stressful Events:

Exposure to trauma, abuse (physical, emotional, or sexual), accidents, or highly stressful situations, especially during childhood or adolescence, can increase the risk of experiencing dissociative symptoms, including depersonalization and derealization.

Mental Health Conditions:

Individuals with anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or other psychiatric conditions are more susceptible to experiencing DPDR symptoms. DPDR often co-occurs with these mental health disorders.

Personality Traits:

Certain personality traits, such as high levels of dissociation, neuroticism, or tendencies toward avoidance coping strategies, might predispose individuals to develop depersonalization or derealization experiences.

Genetic or Familial Factors:

While specific genetic factors contributing to DPDR haven’t been identified, there might be a genetic predisposition or familial patterns in some cases, indicating a potential genetic vulnerability to dissociative experiences.

Substance Use or Medications:

Certain substances, particularly hallucinogens, cannabis, or dissociative drugs, can induce depersonalization or derealization symptoms. Additionally, withdrawal from substances or medications may trigger dissociative experiences in susceptible individuals.

Childhood Adversity:

Adverse childhood experiences, including neglect, emotional or physical abuse, dysfunctional family dynamics, or early attachment issues, can increase the risk of developing dissociative symptoms later in life.

High Levels of Stress or Chronic Stressors:

Ongoing stressors, whether related to work, relationships, financial issues, or other life challenges, can contribute to the onset or exacerbation of DPDR symptoms.

Sensitivity to Bodily Sensations or Changes:

Hypervigilance towards bodily sensations or an intense focus on physical or emotional discomfort might increase the likelihood of experiencing depersonalization or derealization.

Previous Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) or Neurological Conditions:

In some cases, individuals who have experienced traumatic brain injuries or certain neurological conditions may report dissociative symptoms, including depersonalization or derealization.

It’s important to note that while these factors might increase the risk of developing DPDR, not everyone exposed to these risk factors will necessarily develop the disorder. The onset and persistence of DPDR are influenced by a complex interaction of various factors, including individual susceptibility, resilience, and environmental circumstances. Seeking professional help from mental health experts is crucial for accurate assessment, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment of DPDR symptoms.

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Treatment for Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

Treatment for Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder (DPDR) typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, medications, and supportive strategies. It’s important to note that there’s no single universally effective treatment for DPDR, and approaches may vary based on individual needs and circumstances. Here are some common treatment options:


  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT focuses on identifying and modifying distorted thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors that contribute to DPDR symptoms. It helps individuals develop coping strategies to manage symptoms and address triggers.
  • Mindfulness-Based Therapies: Mindfulness techniques, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), can help individuals become more aware of their present experiences and manage distressing thoughts or sensations associated with DPDR.


  • Antidepressants: Certain antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), might be prescribed to alleviate symptoms of anxiety or depression that often co-occur with DPDR. They may help in some cases, but responses to medication can vary among individuals.
  • Atypical Antipsychotics: In some instances, atypical antipsychotic medications may be considered to manage severe DPDR symptoms, especially when there’s a co-occurring psychotic disorder or significant distress.

Trauma-Focused Therapy:

For individuals whose DPDR symptoms are related to past trauma or PTSD, therapies specifically designed for trauma processing, such as Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) or trauma-focused CBT, can be beneficial.

Self-Care and Coping Strategies:

  • Stress Management Techniques:

Learning and practicing relaxation techniques, meditation, deep breathing exercises, and stress reduction methods can help manage symptoms triggered by stress.

  • Healthy Lifestyle:

Regular exercise, adequate sleep, a balanced diet, and minimizing substance use (including alcohol and recreational drugs) can positively impact overall mental well-being.

  • Establishing Routine:

Creating and sticking to a daily routine can provide structure and stability, potentially reducing feelings of detachment or disconnection.

  • Support Groups and Peer Support:

Engaging in support groups or connecting with individuals who have experienced similar symptoms can provide validation, understanding, and shared coping strategies.

  • Educational and Psychoeducation Approaches:

Learning about DPDR, its triggers, and effective coping mechanisms can empower individuals to better understand and manage their symptoms.

Treatment for DPDR is often individualized, and the effectiveness of interventions can vary among different individuals. It’s crucial to work with mental health professionals, such as psychologists, psychiatrists, or therapists, to create a tailored treatment plan that addresses the specific needs and experiences of the person affected by DPDR.

Therapies for Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

Several therapeutic approaches can be effective in managing Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder (DPDR). These therapies aim to help individuals understand, cope with, and reduce the frequency and intensity of depersonalization and derealization experiences. Some effective therapies include:

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT):

CBT is often used to treat DPDR by identifying and modifying maladaptive thoughts, behaviors, and beliefs that contribute to symptoms. This approach helps individuals challenge distorted perceptions and develop coping strategies to manage triggers and reduce dissociative experiences.

Mindfulness-Based Therapies:

Mindfulness techniques, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), focus on developing present-moment awareness and acceptance of thoughts and sensations. Mindfulness practices can help individuals ground themselves in the present and reduce the distress associated with depersonalization or derealization.

Exposure Therapy:

Gradual exposure to triggers or situations that induce depersonalization or derealization can help individuals desensitize themselves to these experiences. This controlled exposure, conducted in a safe therapeutic environment, aims to reduce fear and avoidance related to dissociative triggers.

Trauma-Focused Therapies:

For individuals whose DPDR is linked to trauma or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trauma-focused therapies such as Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), or narrative exposure therapy may be beneficial in processing traumatic experiences and reducing dissociative symptoms.

Sensorimotor Psychotherapy:

This approach focuses on the mind-body connection, addressing how physical sensations and movements are connected to emotional experiences. It helps individuals recognize and release physical tension or sensations associated with depersonalization or derealization.

Schema Therapy:

This integrative therapeutic approach targets longstanding patterns or schemas developed in childhood that contribute to DPDR symptoms. Schema therapy combines elements of CBT with other techniques to address underlying emotional needs and promote healthier coping mechanisms.

Group Therapy or Support Groups:

Engaging in group therapy or support groups with individuals experiencing similar symptoms can provide validation, reduce isolation, and offer opportunities for shared coping strategies and mutual support.

Psychodynamic Therapy:

Exploring underlying unconscious conflicts, unresolved emotions, or past experiences that contribute to DPDR symptoms is the focus of psychodynamic therapy. This approach aims to increase self-awareness and understanding of the origins of dissociative experiences.

Therapeutic interventions for DPDR are often individualized based on the individual’s specific symptoms, triggers, and personal history. Combining different therapeutic approaches or tailoring treatments to suit the individual’s needs may yield the most effective results. Seeking guidance from mental health professionals experienced in treating dissociative disorders is essential for selecting the most appropriate therapy or combination of therapies for DPDR.

Preventions of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

Preventing Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder (DPDR) can be challenging as the precise causes and mechanisms triggering the condition are not entirely clear. However, certain strategies and lifestyle approaches may potentially help reduce the risk of experiencing DPDR symptoms or mitigate their severity:

Stress Management:

Developing effective stress management techniques can be crucial in preventing or reducing DPDR symptoms. Engaging in activities like mindfulness meditation, yoga, deep breathing exercises, or progressive muscle relaxation can help manage stress levels.

Healthy Coping Strategies:

Cultivating healthy coping mechanisms for dealing with difficult emotions or challenging situations can be beneficial. This may involve learning problem-solving skills, assertiveness training, and developing adaptive coping strategies to handle stressors effectively.

Addressing Trauma or Past Adversity:

Seeking appropriate support or therapy to address past traumatic experiences, childhood adversity, or unresolved emotional issues may help prevent the onset of DPDR symptoms linked to trauma.

Balanced Lifestyle:

Maintaining a balanced lifestyle that includes regular exercise, adequate sleep, a nutritious diet, and avoiding substance abuse or excessive use of alcohol or recreational drugs can contribute to overall mental well-being and potentially reduce the risk of experiencing DPDR.

Healthy Boundaries and Self-Care:

Learning to establish healthy boundaries, practicing self-care, and recognizing one’s emotional and psychological limits can help prevent chronic stress and emotional overwhelm that may contribute to DPDR.

Early Intervention:

Seeking professional help at the onset of distressing symptoms or experiences of dissociation, especially if triggered by stress or traumatic events, can be crucial. Early intervention may prevent symptoms from worsening or becoming chronic.

Building Resilience:

Developing resilience by building strong social support networks, engaging in meaningful activities, fostering positive relationships, and developing problem-solving skills can potentially mitigate the impact of stressors and reduce the likelihood of developing DPDR.

While these strategies may not guarantee the prevention of DPDR, they can contribute to overall mental well-being and resilience, potentially reducing the risk or severity of dissociative experiences. For individuals at risk or experiencing distressing symptoms of depersonalization or derealization, seeking guidance and support from mental health professionals is essential for appropriate assessment, early intervention, and tailored strategies to address their specific needs.

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